C1S and C2S - Abbreviations
for coated one side and coated two sides.
Calender - To make the surface of paper smooth by pressing it between
rollers during manufacturing.
Caliper - (1) Thickness of paper or other substrate
expressed in thousandths of an inch (mils or points), pages per inch
(ppi), thousandths of a millimeter (microns) or pages per centimeter
(ppc). (2) Device on a sheetfed press that detects double sheets
or on a binding machine that detects missing signatures or inserts.
Camera-ready Copy - Mechanicals, photographs and
art fully prepared for reproduction according to the technical requirements
of the printing process being used. Also called finished art and
Camera Service - Business using a process camera
to make photostats, halftones, plates and other elements for printing.
Also called prep service and trade camera service.
Carbonless Paper -Paper coated with chemicals that
enable transfer of images from one sheet to another with pressure
from writing or typing.
Carload - Selling unit of paper that may weigh anywhere
from 20,000 to 100,000 pounds (9,090 to 45, 454 kilos), depending
on which mill or merchant uses the term. Abbreviated CL.
Carton - Selling unit of paper weighing approximately
150 pounds (60 kilos). A carton can contain anywhere from 500 to
5,000 sheets, depending on the size of sheets and their basis weight.
Case - Covers and spine that, as a unit,
enclose the pages of a casebound book.
Case Bind - To bind using glue to hold signatures
to a case made of binder board covered with fabric, plastic or leather.
Also called cloth bind, edition bind, hard bind and hard cover.
Cast-coated Paper - High gloss, coated paper made
by pressing the paper against a polished, hot, metal drum while the
coating is still wet.
Catalog Paper - Coated paper rated #4
or #5 with basis weight from 35# to 50# (50 to 75 gsm) commonly used
for catalogs and magazines.
Chain Dot -
(1) Alternate term for elliptical dot, so called because midtone
dots touch at two points, so look like links in a chain. (2) Generic
term for any midtone dots whose corners touch.
Chain Lines -
(1) Widely spaced lines in laid paper. (2) Blemishes on printed images
caused by tracking.
Chalking - Deterioration of a printed image caused
by ink that absorbs into paper too fast or has long exposure to sun,
and wind making printed images look dusty. Also called crocking.
Check Copy -
(1) Production copy of a publication verified by the customer as
printed, finished and bound correctly. (2) One set of gathered book
signatures approved by the customer as ready for binding.
Technique of slightly reducing the size of an image to create a hairline
trap or to outline. Also called shrink and skinny.
Strength of a color as compared to how close it seems to neutral
gray. Also called depth, intensity, purity and saturation.
Close Up - A mark used to indicate closing space
between characters or words. Usually used in proofing stages.
Abbreviation for cyan, magenta, yellow and key (black), the four
Coarse Screen -
Halftone screen with ruling of 65, 85 or 100 lines per inch (26,
34 or 40 lines centimeter).
Coated Paper -
Paper with a coating of clay and other substances that improves reflectivity
and ink holdout. Mills produce coated paper in the four major categories
cast, gloss, dull and matte.
To organize printed matter in a specific order as requested.
Collating Marks - Mostly in the book arena, specific
marks on the back of signatures indicating exact position in the
Color Balance -
Refers to amounts of process colors that simulate the colors of the
original scene or photograph.
Color Blanks -
Press sheets printed with photos or illustrations, but without type.
Also called shells.
Color Break -
In multicolor printing, the point, line or space at which one ink
color stops and another begins. Also called break for color.
Color Cast -
Unwanted color affecting an entire image or portion of an image.
Color Control Bar - Strip of small blocks of color
on a proof or press sheet to help evaluate features such as density
and dot gain. Also called color bar, color guide and standard offset
Color Correct -
To adjust the relationship among the process colors to achieve desirable
Color Curves -
Instructions in computer software that allow users to change or correct
colors. Also called HLS and HVS tables.
Color Electronic Prepress System -
Computer, scanner, printer and other hardware and software designed
for image assembly, color correction, retouching and output onto
proofing materials, film or printing plates. Abbreviated CEPS.
Color Gamut -
The entire range of hues possible to reproduce using a specific device,
such as a computer screen, or system, such as four-color process
Color Key -
Brand name for an overlay color proof. Sometimes used as a generic
term for any overlay color proof.
Color Model -
Way of categorizing and describing the infinite array of colors found
Color Separation -
(1) Technique of using a camera, scanner or computer to divide continuous-tone
color images into four halftone negatives. (2) The product resulting
from color separating and subsequent four-color process printing.
Also called separation.
Color Sequence -
Order in which inks are printed. Also called laydown sequence and
Color Shift -
Change in image color resulting from changes in register, ink densities
or dot gain during four-color process printing.
Color Transparency -
Film (transparent) used as art to perform color separations.
Comb Bind -
To bind by inserting the teeth of a flexible plastic comb through
holes punched along the edge of a stack of paper. Also called plastic
bind and GBC bind (a brand name).
Commercial Printer -
Printer producing a wide range of products such as announcements,
brochures, posters, booklets, stationery, business forms, books and
magazines. Also called job printer because each job is different.
Complementary Flat(s) - The second or additional
flat(s) used when making composite film or for two or more burns
on one printing plate.
Composite Art - Mechanical on which copy for reproduction
in all colors appears on only one surface, not separated onto overlays.
Composite art has a tissue overlay with instructions that indicate
Composite Film - Film made by combining images from
two or more pieces of working film onto one film for making one plate.
Composite Proof - Proof of color separations in
position with graphics and type. Also called final proof, imposition
proof and stripping proof.
Composition - (1) In typography, the assembly of
typographic elements, such as words and paragraphs, into pages ready
for printing. (2) In graphic design, the arrangement of type, graphics
and other elements on the page.
Comprehensive Dummy - Simulation of a
printed piece complete with type, graphics and colors. Also called
color comprehensive and comp.
Condition - To keep paper in the pressroom for a
few hours or days before printing so that its moisture level and
temperature equal that in the pressroom. Also called cure, mature
Contact Platemaker - Device with lights, timing
mechanism and vacuum frame used to make contact prints, duplicate
film, proofs and plates. Also called platemaker and vacuum frame.
Continuous-tone Copy - All photographs and those
illustrations having a range of shades not made up of dots, as compared
to line copy or halftones. Abbreviated contone.
Contrast - The degree of tones in an image ranging
from highlight to shadow.
Business that makes products such as boxes, bags, envelopes and displays.
Copyboard - Surface or frame on a process camera
that holds copy in position to be photographed.
Cover - Thick paper that protects a publication
and advertises its title. Parts of covers are often described as
follows: Cover 1=outside front; Cover 2=inside front; Cover 3=inside
back, Cover 4=outside back.
Coverage - Extent to which ink covers the surface of a substrate. Ink coverage
is usually expressed as light, medium or heavy.
Cover Paper - Category of thick paper
used for products such as posters, menus, folders and covers of paperback
Crash - Coarse cloth embedded in the glue along
the spine of a book to increase strength of binding. Also called
gauze, mull and scrim.
Creep - Phenomenon of middle pages of a folded signature
extending slightly beyond outside pages. Also called feathering,
outpush, push out and thrust. See also Shingling.
Crop Marks - Lines near the edges of an image indicating
portions to be reproduced. Also called cut marks and tic marks.
Crossover - Type or art that continues from one page of a book or magazine across
the gutter to the opposite page. Also called bridge, gutter bleed
and gutter jump.
Cure - To dry inks, varnishes or other coatings
after printing to ensure good adhesion and prevent setoff.
Customer Service Representative - Employee of a
printer, service bureau, separator or other business who coordinates
projects and keeps customers informed. Abbreviated CSR.
Cutoff -Circumference of the impression
cylinder of a web press, therefore also the length of the printed
sheet that the press cuts from the roll of paper.
Cut Sizes - Paper sizes used with office machines and small presses.
Cutting Machine - A machine that cuts stacks of
paper to desired sizes. The machine can also be used in scoring or
Cutting Die - Usually a custom ordered item to trim
specific and unusual sized printing projects.
CWT - Abbreviation for hundredweight using the Roman
Cyan - One of the four process colors. Also known
as process blue.